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Related to Light Emitting Diode

Sapphire is a crystal boules of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) formed at the 2050. Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires, 9 Mohs scale (and of aluminum oxide in general), sapphire has infrared optical characteristics, superior heat conductivity, stability  between low and high temperature similar metal in ceramic material. 

LED is semiconductor device has contains various ability to flow electricity due to impurity of internal structure of all semiconductor (created by additives of trace chemical).  N type impurity is added excess electron to the semiconductor, P type impurity is generate electric attack.  Particle contains negative electricity is naturally move from many electron group (negative) to low electron group (positive).

N type materials stationed along the P type material in the internal of Diode , electric flow from N type to P type in one direction when these two are stayed in electrode.  Electron send energy in the form of light  quantum when In the moment of fall in electric attack, as a result of this, emit light when the diode move one way to another way. Generate various light wave length depends on the using materials to the semiconductor.